Overlooked Passage in GOP Tax Bill Would Gouge America's Growing Army of Gig Economy Workers

Steven Rosenfeld Author

The Republican tax bill now in Congress would imperil many of the last century’s hardest-won labor rights for workers by building a new legal wall between businesses and so-called gig economy workers that absolves management of many obligations owed to employees, according to law school professors tracking the bill.

“There is an important battle going on right now in labor and employment law over the appropriate classification of workers in the gig/platform/sharing economy,” wrote Boston College’s Shu-Yi Oei and Diane M. Ring for TaxProf Blog from Pepperdine University School of Law. “At stake in the fight are the rights of workers to collectively bargain, and to overtime pay, minimum wage, child labor laws, and family and medical leave. The battle also holds implications for application of health and safety regulations and anti-discrimination laws. Employee classification confers many of these protections. Independent contractor classification does not.”

The GOP's tax reform legislation doesn’t just reconfigure tax brackets, tax rates and tax breaks; its fine print contains provisions long sought by various industry sectors. One of these is language lifted from a prior House bill called the New Economy Works to Guarantee Independence and Growth Act, or NEW GIG Act. That legislation, which the Congress’ Joint Committee on Taxation last week suggested was added to the Senate draft of the tax bill, clarifies “worker classification” and income-reporting responsibilities in five major ways, the TaxProf Blog said.

First, it creates some tests easily met by any company hiring independent contractors that says these workers are not employees. Next it says anyone making more than $1,000 has to file a 1099 tax form reporting that income. Third, it requires the company hiring the contractors to withhold 5 percent of the income paid—which is new, akin to what full-time employers now do, but less than the current federal self-employment tax. Fourth, it limits the Internal Revenue Service from reclassifying contractors as employees. But fifth, it allows workers to sue in tax court.

“From a purely tax point of view, we would readily admit that the proposals can make life simpler and less confusing for workers and help somewhat with tax compliance and enforcement,” the authors wrote for TaxProf Blog. “The problem is that it’s not just about tax.”

That assessment is an understatement, and the Boston College professors explain in detail as they pinpoint larger issues and what to worry about.

“Our worry is that tax clarification of independent contractor status is a strategic step designed to win this broader (non-tax) regulatory war over worker classification,” they write. “Our specific concern is that ‘forced clarity’ in tax can tilt the direction of the worker classification debate in a way desired by the platform businesses, industry lobbyists and the legislation’s supporters.”

The authors quote a report by Eric Boehm at the Libertarian outlet Reason.com, which said, “The platforms themselves want this clarification included in the law as a way to short-circuit lawsuits, like one already launched by Uber drivers in California, aimed at forcing them to treat workers as employees.” Boehm explains:

“In return for clarifying that gig economy workers are contractors, Congress appears to be saying, those platforms will have to collect income taxes from those same workers. By doing that, Congress guarantees that more taxes will be paid—rather than the current system, which relies on individual contractors to correctly calculate and pay their own taxes, something that likely shortchanges the IRS to the tune of several billion per year, according to Caroline Bruckner, managing director of American University's Kogod Tax Policy Center.”

The TaxProf Blog points out that putting the NEW GIG bill’s language into the GOP tax reform bill would essentially pre-empt state and local legislative efforts to adopt legal protections for gig economy workers—who are essentially freelancers who often work exclusively and full-time for employers, but aren’t considered traditional employees under state and federal law.

“As the worker classification fight has developed, one of the tactical moves we have seen employed by both sides is to back reforms that grant piecemeal incremental protections for workers. For example, the City of Seattle passed an ordinance granting rideshare drivers the right to collectively bargain. Others have proposed creation of a third category of worker in between employee and independent contractor,” they write. “It’s important to note that even though the NEW GIG legislation was promoted as clarification for gig economy workers, nothing in the text of the proposed NEW GIG legislation or the JCT-prepared [Joint Committee on Taxation] description [of the GOP tax reforms] limits this legislation to gig workers.”

That’s the larger point. There is much to grumble about with this narrow area of the GOP legislation. It grants the legal presumption to employers that any worker management wants to treat as a contractor is designated as such under law. It further cements that pro-management position by limiting the IRS’ ability to reclassify contractors as employees. These provisions would absolve owners and management from many employer responsibilities for full-time employees, including the rights of workers to organize unions, earn minimum wages, outlaw child labor, and guarantee family and medical leave. They also call into question the applicability of anti-discrimination laws and health and safety regulations.

“If one is going to sign off on this type of legislation, one should at least be aware of what the far-reaching consequences may be in order to make a conscious determination that it’s still worth doing despite these wide-ranging non-tax risks and costs,” co-authors Oei and Ring write. “Or, if one’s underlying normative goal is to harness tax reform in order to dilute worker protections in pursuit of business growth, one should be transparent about that too.”

At the very least, gig economy workers and contractors ought to be aware that the GOP Congress is considering legislation that would skim 5 percent off their earnings—to be withheld for federal taxes by their employers. That’s in addition to contractors itemizing their expenses, which are deductible.

In other words, Republicans in Congress are poised to rewrite key labor and tax law in a manner that puts corporate interests above workers, erodes long-standing workplace protections, and withholds earnings as employers currently do for employees—yet legally, these workers would not be considered employees.  

***

Reposted from AlterNet

Posted In: Allied Approaches

Union Matters

Get to Know AFL-CIO's Affiliates: National Association of Letter Carriers

From the AFL-CIO

Next up in our series that takes a deeper look at each of our affiliates is the National Association of Letter Carriers.

Name of Union: National Association of Letter Carriers (NALC)

Mission: To unite fraternally all city letter carriers employed by the U.S. Postal Service for their mutual benefit; to obtain and secure rights as employees of the USPS and to strive at all times to promote the safety and the welfare of every member; to strive for the constant improvement of the Postal Service; and for other purposes. NALC is a single-craft union and is the sole collective-bargaining agent for city letter carriers.

Current Leadership of Union: Fredric V. Rolando serves as president of NALC, after being sworn in as the union's 18th president in 2009. Rolando began his career as a letter carrier in 1978 in South Miami before moving to Sarasota in 1984. He was elected president of Branch 2148 in 1988 and served in that role until 1999. In the ensuing years, he worked in various roles for NALC before winning his election as a national officer in 2002, when he was elected director of city delivery. In 2006, he won election as executive vice president. Rolando was re-elected as NALC president in 2010, 2014 and 2018.

Brian Renfroe serves as executive vice president, Lew Drass as vice president, Nicole Rhine as secretary-treasurer, Paul Barner as assistant secretary-treasurer, Christopher Jackson as director of city delivery, Manuel L. Peralta Jr. as director of safety and health, Dan Toth as director of retired members, Stephanie Stewart as director of the Health Benefit Plan and James W. “Jim” Yates as director of life insurance.

Number of Members: 291,000 active and retired letter carriers.

Members Work As: City letter carriers.

Industries Represented: The United States Postal Service.

History: In 1794, the first letter carriers were appointed by Congress as the implementation of the new U.S. Constitution was being put into effect. By the time of the Civil War, free delivery of city mail was established and letter carriers successfully concluded a campaign for the eight-hour workday in 1888. The next year, letter carriers came together in Milwaukee and the National Association of Letter Carriers was formed.

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